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Emerging Science Process Skills: Those skills which we expect students to be developmentally prepared to practice at this level.

INQUIRY (Questions, Hypotheses): Students begin to pose "what" and "how" questions about things not directly observable and recognize types of questions that lead to a scientific investigation. Students notice details beyond the obvious and observe events many times to validate findings. Based on observations they are able to revise their predictions.

EXPERIMENTATION (Experimental Design, Data Collection & Analysis): Students design simple investigations which include the notion of a "fair test". Students are exposed to a wider variety of tools. their uses, and applications. They gather, organize, and display data that reflect the process of their thinking.

EXPLANATION (Application, Explanation and Conclusions): Students classify according to specific properties. They read, create graphs or charts, and base conclusions and predictions on them. Students use information from observations and experiments to explain and form conclusion with increasing independence.

Recommended Scope and Sequence:

 

3

4

Space, Time, Matter

Magnets, Electric Charge and Conductors

Forces, Motion and Simple Machines

The Living World

Aquatic Environments

Adaptations and Habitats

The Human Body

Circulatory, Respiratory Systems

Immune System and Disease

Earth, Universe & Environ-ment

Water Cycle, Weather and Water Properties

Natural Resources and Recycling

 Embedding Other Standards

Examples of how other standards could be utilized in units covered in this grade-level section

Embedding Vital Results Standards: (These are examples of how a teacher might include Vital Results / Cross Disciplinary Standards in units of study presented in this section.)

Notation 1.17: Use appropriate scientific vocabulary and representations while presenting results of investigations of various habitats.

Service 4.1: in Natural Resources unit, implement activities that respond to community needs for recycling.

Problem Solving Process 2.2: Seek information, evaluate your approach, test more than one solution in designing electrical circuits.

Embedding Other Science Standards: (These are examples how a teacher might include other science standards from the Vt Framework and WSESU Framework in units of study presented in this section.)

Investigation 7.2: Design and conduct a "fair test" experiment or systematic observation regarding the effect of an environmental factor on respiration rates.

Natural Resources 7.16: Show that some materials can be reused and recycled while others will be disposed of in landfills.

Embedding Mathematics Standards: (These are examples of how a teacher might include mathematics standards from the Vt Framework and WSESU Framework in units of study presented in this section.)

Mathematical Problem Solving and Reasoning 7.10: Determine the amount (weight) of recyclables being kept out of the landfill using various different recycling scenarios.

Arithmetic, Number and Operation: 7.6: Have students practice estimating numbers of plants in a given habitat - then sample to check estimates.


SPACE TIME & MATTER 7.12 Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and transformations.

 

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

3

Electricity in circuits can be used to produce light, heat and magnetic effects.

Magnets attract and repel each other and certain other materials.

Electric current is used in a variety of ways in everyday life.

Certain materials make good conductors.

Magnets, Electric Charge and Conductors

f. Observe and record the effects of electric charge (e.g., charges repel, batteries); investigate magnetic and non-magnetic materials, and materials that are conductors and non-conductors of electricity.

What is Electricity?

Why do magnets work?

What materials make good conductors? ... why?

How is electricity generated?

ÝMake an electromagnet

Explore how to make complete circuits in more than one way (series, parallel) using the same materials.

Demonstrate how a switch can be used.

ÝDesign a security system.

ÝDesign a telegraph and code system.

ÝDesign an invention using a magnet.

Magnets, Electric Charge and Conductors resources

4

An object's position and motion can be accurately described.

The position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling; The size of the change is related to the strength of the push or pull.

Gravity and friction are forces that are commonly at work in our world.

Simple machines found in many everyday objects allow us to do work using less force over greater distance.

Forces, Motion and Simple Machines

d. Apply forces to objects (e.g., inertia, gravity, friction, push and pull), and observe the objects in motion.

What is a machine?

How are machines used in work or play?

How do forces affect motion?

Does friction affect how things move?

...gravity?

Identify simple machines in everyday settings.

ÝDesign a toy that demonstrates learning about forces.

ÝDesign a rolling vehicle that minimizes friction.

Forces, Motion and Simple Machines resources

The Living World 7.13 Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

 

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

3

Living things depend upon each other.

Organisms live in specific environments (habitats) and so have specific needs.

Humans have an impact on the places where other things live.

Aquatic Environments

c. Describe and show examples of the interdependence of all systems that support life (e.g., family, community, food chains, populations, life cycles, effects on the environment), and apply them to local systems.

What are the characteristics of a pond community?

How are all living things in a pond interconnected?

What plants and animals may be found in ponds?

What conditions are necessary to support life in a pond?

Measure and compare water temperature on the top and bottom of a pond

Build a pond aquarium with plants, animals, and water from a nearby pond. Observe and record the activity in the aquarium.

Visit a pond. Collect, classify, identify and release aquatic plants and animals as well as microorganisms.

Make a model of a pond food chain to show the interdependence of a pond community.

ÝDesign and make a model of a pond plant or animal that will walk (float) on the surface film of pond water.

Aquatic Environments resources

4

Organisms live in specific environments (habitats) and so have specific needs.

Organisms have structures that help them grow, survive and reproduce.

Organisms have senses to detect internal / external cues (experience the world).

Organisms pass on certain basic characteristics from generation to generation.

Living things adapt and change over long periods of time.

Adaptations and Habitats

a. Identify characteristics of organisms (e.g., needs, environments that meet them; structures, especially senses; variation and behaviors, inherited and learned).

d. Provide examples of change over time (e.g., extinction, changes in organisms).

What are some adaptations that help plants and animals get food? ...defend themselves? ...reproduce?

What special senses do plants and animals have?

What kinds of plants and animals live in a forest? ...field? ...swamp?

What plants and animals are endangered?

Investigate different habitats, record the plants and animals found there.

Create pictures and/or models of plants and animals with special adaptations. Show how the adaptation helps the plant or animal.

Play games simulating animal adaptations.

Adaptations and Habitats resources

The Human Body 7.14 Students demonstrate understanding of the human body &emdash; heredity, body systems, and individual development &emdash; and understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

 

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

3

The respiratory system serves to obtain oxygen for and eliminate carbon dioxide from the body.

The circulatory system serves as a transport mechanism for a variety of chemicals (including oxygen, carbon dioxide).

There are things that students can do to maintain the good health of each body system.

Different substances, such as illegal drugs or pollutants, can damage the body and how it functions.

Circulatory, Respiratory Systems

b. Identify the parts of the human body, and demonstrate understanding of how the parts work together to perform functions that satisfy common needs.

c. Identify and describe environmental factors that can influence human health (e.g., exposure to microbes, pollution).

Why do I breathe?

What is blood for?

How can I stay healthy?

Make a model of the heart, lungs, bones, muscles.

Observe and record heart rate and respiration rate before and after exercise.

Circulatory, Respiratory Systems resources

4

The immune system, helps fight off germs that can cause disease.

There are things that students can do to maintain their good health.

Nutrition is essential to disease prevention.

Different substances, such as illegal drugs or pollutants, can damage the body and weaken the immune system.

Immune System and Disease

c. Identify and describe environmental factors that can influence human health (e.g., exposure to microbes, pollution).

Why do I get sick?

What can I do to get better?

What are germs?

What are drugs?

Why are some drugs 'good' and others 'bad'?

How are communicable and non-communicable diseases different?

What are some important classroom health rules?

What is the difference between a virus and a bacterium?

Grow bacteria on petrie plates.

Arrange a classroom visit from the nurse.

Make a play or model demonstrating the parts of the immune system.

Immune System and Disease resources

The Universe, Earth and the Environment 7.15 Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently explain their evolution.

 

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

3

Water cycles through earth and the atmosphere in a process called the water cycle.

The sun provides necessary heat and light to earth and provides the energy that drives the water cycle.

Water changes the surface of earth through erosion and weathering.

Water has certain properties which affect how it behaves in the environment

Weather changes from day to day and can be described in a systematic way.

Weather patterns can be mapped to provide predictions.

Water Cycle, Weather and Water

c. Identify and record the interrelated parts of earth systems (seasons, time, weather, etc.)

Why does weather change?

What makes weather change?

How does the weather change day to day? ...season to season?

How does the water cycle renew our water supply?

What is the water cycle?

What are the properties of liquid water, solid water and water vapor?

Collect, analyze, observe and record weather change over short periods of time (hours or days).

Observe and record weather patterns over longer periods (months or seasons).

Record temperature, wind, humidity, cloud types and precipitation.

Use science tools (thermometers, anemometers, rain gauges and barometers to collect data.

Explore and explain why different objects float in water while others do not.

Test the pH of different liquids then set up an acid rain monitoring station.

Water Cycle, Weather and Water resources

4

Different earth materials can be used for a variety of purposes.

Many of earth's resources are finite and should be managed carefully.

Natural Resources and Recycling

e. Analyze and explain natural resource management (e.g., properties and uses of earth materials: rocks, soils, water, fish, wildlife, plants, trees, and gases).

How can we conserve our natural resources?

... our soil? ... water? ...air? ...forests? wildlife? ...fossil fuels?

Why do we create parks, conservation areas and sanctuaries?

How do we dispose of refuse in a way that does not harm our earth?

How does recycling help to conserve the earth's natural resources?

How does water become polluted? ...air? ..soil?

Design a way to conserve soil using things like cover crops, contour planting and other soil management measures. Test your design with wind and rain erosion.

Visit your local landfill.

Collect trash from the school playground or public place. Weigh amount collected. Sort garbage into different materials (paper, metal, glass and plastic). Reweigh after removing recyclables.

ÝDesign a snack food packaged on a way that uses many resources, uses the least amount of resource. (Has to be able to be carried to school and stored until snack time).

Build a garbage garden - burying different objects and predicting how long it will take for things to decompose. Observe over time, collecting data. Distinguish between biodegradable and non-biodegradable objects.

Natural Resources and Recycling resources

 

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53 Green Street, Brattleboro, VT. 05301
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Updated: March 9, 2011