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Emerging Science Process Skills: Those skills which we expect students to be developmentally prepared to practice at this level.

INQUIRY (Questions, Hypotheses): Young children demonstrate a natural curiosity about the world around them, using their senses to observe their environment. They progress from "why" questions to "what" and "how" questions and begin to use logic and prior knowledge to make predictions.

EXPERIMENTATION (Experimental Design, Data Collection & Analysis): Students begin to seek answers through active investigations. They are able to collect, count, measure and sort objects. They identify and use simple scientific tools.

EXPLANATION (Application, Explanation and Conclusions): Students are able to identify patterns, similarities and differences and logically explain why objects are categorized in a certain way. They begin to organize and interpret data using lists, graphs, charts, simple tallies, words, symbols, pictures and models.

Recommended Scope and Sequence:

K

1
2

Space, Time, Matter

Properties of Matter

States of Matter & Behavior of Gasses

Heat ,Light & Sound

The Living World

Living & Non-living

Life Cycles of Plants

Life Cycles of Animals

The Human Body

Our Body (incl. 5 senses)

Nutrition & Digestion

Human Development & Inheritance, Skeletal & Muscular Systems

Earth, Universe & Environ-ment

Our Earth

Earth, Sun, Moon System

Earth's Changing Surface

 Embedding Other Standards

Examples of how other standards could be utilized in units covered in this grade-level section

Embedding Vital Results Standards: (These are examples of how a teacher might include Vital Results / Cross Disciplinary Standards in units of study presented in this section.)

Listening 1.13 Have students listen to other's explanations and ask clarifying questions and/or restate.

Questioning 2.1 Encourage students to ask questions about how things work.

 

Embedding Other Science Standards: (These are examples of how a teacher might include Other science standards from the Vt Framework and WSESU Framework in units of study presented in this section.)

Scientific method 7.1: In the "Our Earth" unit, get students to ask questions about the world around them, and create hypotheses (answers to the questions). Have them check their own and other's explanations against experience, observations.

Systems 7.11: Have students explain human body systems as made up of interdependent parts.

 

Embedding Mathematics Standards: (These are examples of how a teacher might include mathematics standards from the Vt Framework and WSESU Framework in units of study presented in this section.)

Geometry and Measurement 7.7: Have students measure characteristics of objects (height, weight, temperature) in studying properties of matter.

Statistics and Probability 7.9: Have students measure their own heights and find the average height in the Human Development unit.

 

 

 

SPACE TIME & MATTER 7.12 Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and transformations.

 

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

K

Objects have many observable properties (eg. size, weight, shape, color).

Many properties can be measured using tools.

Properties of Matter (Kindergarten)

a. Sort objects and materials according to observations of similarities and differences of properties (e.g., size, weight, color, shape, etc.).

How can we describe objects according to their physical properties (similarities and differences)?

How can properties be used to sort and compare objects?

Sort a variety of objects and name the property used to do the sorting. Resort the same set using a different property.

Investigate the properties of paper (does it float, can you fold it, how is it made...) or other materials.

Compare the weights, lengths and heights of objects using tools (balance, string, ruler).

Properties of Matter Resources

1

 Materials can exist in different states (solid, liquid, gas).

Materials change from state to state depending on the amount of heat energy they contain.

Air and other gasses have mass.

 

States of Matter (Grade 1)

b. Observe and describe changes of states of

matter (e.g., in water).

c. Observe and describe the behavior of gases in containers (e.g. , pumps, balloons).

 

How are solids, liquids and gasses similar and different?

What makes matter change its state?

Does the amount of matter change when its shape, size or state changes?

Does air have mass?

Sort and categorize a variety of solids, liquids and gasses (balls, books, water, syrup, aromas from vanilla extract....).

Observe and describe water as it changes state from solid to liquid to gas.

Investigate whether the amount of an object changes if its appearance changes (eg. weigh and measure 1 cup of corn flakes, crush the corn flakes and measure again; weigh and melt a cup of snow and see how much water remains).

Investigate the contributions made by Lavoisier, Archimedes

States of Matter resources

2

Heat, light and sound are common forms of energy

Heat can be produced in many ways and can move between objects by conduction.

Light travels in a straight line and can be reflected refracted or absorbed.

Sound is produced by vibrating objects. The pitch of a sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration.

Heat, Light, Sound (Grade 2)

e. Identify and describe several common forms of energy (e.g., light, heat, and sound) and provide examples of sources, as well as some characteristics of the transmission (e.g., light travels in straight lines until it is reflected, refracted, or absorbed).

 

 

What are some common forms of energy?

What are the properties of heat?

...of light? ....of sound?

How do we hear sound?

ÝMake and use a sundial.

Investigate the heat conductivity of different materials.

Sort and categorize materials according to their ability to reflect or allow light to pass through.

ÝMake a musical instrument that can change pitch.

Design an experiment controlling variables to show how length, tension and thickness of a string affects pitch.

ÝBuild a mini-bottle greenhouse.

Investigate contributions made by Doppler, Pythagoras, Bell, Boyle, Thompson, Young

 

Heat, Light, Sound resources

 


 

The Living World 7.13 Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

 

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

K

Living things are different from non-living things.

Living things have certain basic needs (energy, habitat space) that must be met for survival.

Living things have characteristics that help them get their needs met.

Living and Non-living Things (Kindergarten)

a. Identify characteristics of organisms (e.g., needs, environments that meet them; structures, especially senses; variation and behaviors, inherited and learned).

b. Categorize living organisms (e.g., plants; fruits, vegetables).

How can you tell living things are different from non-living things?

What do living things need to survive?

Observe and investigate how living things grow and change (eg. monarch butterfly).

Collect and sort a variety of objects from the environment.

Look at living things in different habitats - field, stream, etc..

Living and Non-living Things resources

1

Plants have certain characteristic structures (eg. roots, stems, leaves).

Plants have life cycles that share some common features.

Plants can be sorted and classified.

Plants change over time.

Life Cycles of Plants (Grade 1)

b. Categorize living organisms (e.g. plants, fruits, vegetables).

c. Describe and show examples of the interdependence of all systems that support life (e.g., family, community, food chains, populations, life cycles, effects on the environment), and apply them to local systems.

d. Provide examples of change over time (e.g., extinction, changes in organisms).

What do plants need to stay healthy and grow?

How do plants make seeds?

Where do plants live and why?

Why are plants essential to life?

Observe and record the life cycle of a plant.

Explore the relationship between light, water, air and plant growth and survival.

Investigate the many uses of plants.

 

Life Cycles of Plants resources

2

Animals have characteristic structures (body cavity, means of digestion, etc.)

Animals have life cycles that share some common features.

Animals can be sorted and classified.

Animals change over time.

Life Cycles of Animals (Grade 2)

b. Categorize living organisms (e.g., animals of the air, land,water).

c. Describe and show examples of the interdependence of all systems that support life (e.g., family, community, food chains, populations, life cycles, effects on the environment), and apply them to local systems.

d. Provide examples of change over time (e.g., extinction, changes in organisms).

What do animals need to stay healthy and grow?

Where do animals live and why?

What are the characteristic features of a Bird? Mammal? Reptile? Insect? Fish?

Sort, classify and categorize animals into groups (animal / non-animal, reptile / fish / mammal / etc., preferred habitat.

Investigate a specific real habitat and the animals specific to that habitat.

ÝConstruct a bird house or feeder.

 

Life Cycles of Animals resources

 


 

The Human Body 7.14 Students demonstrate understanding of the human body &emdash; heredity, body systems, and individual development &emdash; and understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

K

Humans have five senses.

The body has various parts and organs that have specific functions.

Humans have basic needs - such as good nutrition - that must be met in order to survive and grow.

Our Body (Kindergarten)

b. Identify the parts of the human body, and demonstrate understanding of how the parts work together to perform functions that satisfy common needs.

c. Identify and describe environmental factors that can influence human health (e.g., exposure to microbes (germs), pollution).

What are our five senses?

How do our senses help us learn about our world?

Why do we have to eat? ....breathe?

What parts of our bodies help us run? .... stand? ...eat? ...get energy?.... learn? ..... stay healthy?

What things make us sick?

What does your body need to survive and grow?

Explore objects/ environment using senses (feely bag, smelling containers, tasting different flavors etc.)

Trace an outline of their body and draw in basic organs and senses.

Arrange a classroom visit from the nurse.

 

Our Body resources

1

Humans have a digestive system, made up of specific parts that have specific functions.

Humans need nutrients to grow and be healthy

Nutrition and Digestion (Grade 1)

b. Identify the parts of the human body, and demonstrate understanding of how the parts work together to perform functions that satisfy common needs.

What happens to food when we eat it?

Why do I get hungry?

What foods are healthy?

Why are some foods unhealthy?

What do I need to eat to stay healthy?

Identify ans classify food groups

Design a model of the digestive system using various materials (clay, string, sticks, etc.)

Create a well balaced meny and prepare and eat the meal

Nutrition and Digestion resources

2

Children inherit many traits from their parents.

There are recognizable stages in the growth and development of humans.

Human Development and Heredity (Grade 2)

a. Recognize that there are many similarities between parents and their children, some inherited and some learned.

d. Identify the pattern of human development.

Why do people say that I look like my father/mother?

What are the stages of human growth and development?

How are infants different from children, adolescents, adults?

Have students ask parents who they resemble - "you have your father's nose and your mother's ......"

Compare a litter of puppies or kittens to the parent animals.

Human Development and Heredity resources

2

The skeletal and muscular systems function in locomotion, support and protection of the body.

There are things that students can do to maintain the good health of each body system.

Muscular, Skeletal Systems (Grade 2)

b. Identify the parts of the human body, and demonstrate understanding of how the parts work together to perform functions that satisfy common needs.

How do muscles work?

What are my bones made of?

Examine X-rays of bone fractures.

Examine the skeletons of other animals.

 

Muscular, Skeletal Systems resources

 

 

 


The Universe, Earth and the Environment 7.15 Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently explain their evolution.

Concepts / Big ideas

Topics / Skills

Focusing Questions

Sample Activities / Resources

K

Earth has seasons

Weather changes from day to day

Earth's land surface is composed of mostly rocks and soil.

Materials useful to humans are obtained from earth.

Our Earth (Kindergarten)

a. Identify and record evidence of change over time (e.g., erosion, weathering, fossilization).

b. Identify and record patterns and forces that shape the earth (e.g., geological, atmospheric).

Why is it raining today?

Why does it get cold in the winter?

Where does soil come from? ...What is it made of?

What is earth made of?

Record weather conditions (sunny, rainy, windy) daily.

Observe soil and rocks with a magnifier and describe.

Collect and classify a set of rocks using different properties (color, texture, size).

Our Earth resources

1

The sun is the center of our Solar System

The sun provides necessary heat and light to earth.

Earth is a sphere that rotates on its axis every day and orbits the sun once a year.

Earth and other planets orbit the sun

Earth, Sun, Moon System (Grade 1)

d Identify and record characteristics of our solar system (e.g., nine planets, order from sun, and movement of planets in relationship to the sun and moon; calendar)

Does the sun move? .. earth? the moon?

Why do we have day and night? seasons? years?

What is the difference between stars, planets, moons?

Draw outlines of students' shadows in chalk. Observe how the shadow changes over a short period of time.

Observe the shadow of an object at the same time each day over several weeks. Record observed changes.

Create a model or poster of our solar system.

Earth, Sun, Moon System resources

2

Earth has a variety of surface features

Over time rock is broken down through weathering and erosion.

Earth's surface is constantly being reshaped by volcanoes, earthquakes, mountain building etc.

 Earth's Changing Surface (Grade 2)

a. Identify and record evidence of change over time (e.g., erosion, weathering, fossilization);

b. Identify and record patterns and forces that shape the earth (e.g., geological, atmospheric)

How does earth change over time?

What forces affect earth's surface?

What are some different surface features?

What causes volcanoes and earthquakes?

Play with water running over the ground. Build dams. Observe the effect of water on soil, rocks, debris in its path.

Carefully observe the different particles that make up sand.

Build models of volcanoes.

 

Earth's Changing Surface resources

 

 

 

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Updated: March 9, 2011